Obligations of Tawaf

  1. To keep clear of the House,
  2. Performing Tawaf between the House and Muqam E Ibrahim
  3. The number of rounds of the Tawaf
  1. Keeping clear of the House
  • The tawaf is not correct if it is done inside the House. However, if one performed the tawaf on the wall of the Hijr or on the shadhrawaan of the Kabah, which are the remaining section of the foundation of the old building after the new building was erected, the tawaf would be correct. There is no objection if one touched the wall of the House or the Hijr with his [left] hand [in the process of the tawaf].
  • If he performed part of the tawaf incorrectly, he is obliged to amend and rectify the incorrect part, if he was not excused, say through ignorance by being moqassir, but if he was excused, say through ignorance by being qasir, it would be preferable for him to do so.
  1. Performing the tawaf between the House and Muqam E Ibrahim
  • As a precaution, and without undue difficulty, one should not include Muqam E Ibrahim inside the circular route of the tawaf, but leave the Muqam on his right and the House on his left, and the tawaf path in between, observing a distance from all sides [of the House], which is estimated to be around 30 feet approximately.
  • It is permitted to perform the tawaf around the sacred Kabah at a distance greater than 30 feet if it proved difficult to meet that requirement. It is also permitted to perform the tawaf on the first floor of Masgid al-Haram, or on the second floor (the roof level) of the Masgid if it was too difficult to do so on the ground floor, and the tawaf around the Kabah would be correct, like when there is a great mass of pilgrims performing the tawaf.
  1. The number of rounds of the Tawaf
  • It is obligatory that the number of cycles of the tawaf around the sacred Kabah is seven rounds, [beginning] from the Hajar al-Aswad and [ending] at the Hajar al-Aswad, nothing more or less.
  • If one adds to or deducts from the tawaf at its beginning or during the course of the tawaf, as a precaution the tawaf would be invalidated in all respects.
  • If the addition was a small amount, before the start of the tawaf, then there is no objection to it if it was in preparation for the tawaf.
  • After completing the seven laps of the tawaf, if by oversight there was an increase of less than one complete cycle around the Kabah, it is mandatory to abort the extra cycle, but if this increase was one complete cycle or more, as a precaution, he should complete the tawaf, i.e. by performing another six laps so that a tawaf of seven laps is completed.
  • The second tawaf would be regarded as nafilah (extra). He should perform the prayer for the first tawaf before the saey, and perform the prayer for the second tawaf after the saey.
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The Rites of the Tamattu‘ Hajj

Hady or Sacrifice

  • The fifth rite of the Hajj is the sacrificing i.e. (Hady), which is the slaughter of the animal that takes place after performing the stay.
  • For the Sacrifice it is obligatory to offer one animal, and it is recommended to offer more, without limit. The Sacrifice is obligatory in the Tamattu‘ Hajj, even if the Hajj was a mostahab one, and even, as a precaution, if one was from the people of Mecca. As for the qaarin, the one performing the Qiraan Hajj, the Sacrifice is also obligatory as he brings the Sacrifice with him. The exception is the Ifrad Hajj where a sacrifice is not required.
  • If an animal is not available for slaughter or the Haajj (pilgrim) cannot find an animal, even though he has the money to cover the cost, and he decided to go back home, he must leave the money with someone he trusts to buy and slaughter the animal on his behalf, during the month of Dhil-Hejjah. If he could not do so in that year, he must do so in the following year in the month of Dhil-Hejjah.

Obligations of the Sacrifice

The obligations of the Sacrifice are:

  • The niyyah
  • That it is a cattle
  • That it is of a certain age
  • That it is of sound creation – without any defects of missing limbs
  • That the slaughter is carried out on the day of Eid
  • That the slaughter takes place in Mina
  • To observe the order, as a precaution
  • That it is not taken outside the [limits] of the Haram
  1. The niyyah (Intention)
  • The niyyah is obligatory for the slaughter, and it is preferred to utter it by saying, “Adhbahu (I slaughter) the Sacrifice seeking nearness to Allah Almighty”.
  • If one does not carry out the slaughter himself, both he and the person carrying out the slaughter should utter the niyyah. If only he uttered the intention, and not the slaughterer, this is sufficient.
  1. That it is a cattle

It is obligatory that the Sacrifice is a cattle, i.e. it is a camel, cow, sheep, and the goat is considered from [the category of] the sheep.

  1. That it is of a certain age

The age of the Sacrifice is sufficient if it is called, [in each case] a camel, or a cow, or a sheep, or a goat, and it is not sufficient if it is of a young age such that, in each case, it is referred to as young weaning camel, or calf, or lamb, or kid. As a recommended precaution,

  • the camel must have completed five years and entered the age of six,
  • the cow has completed two years of age,
  • the sheep has completed seven months, although [it is better] to have completed one year of age and has entered the second,
  • the goat has completed two years of age.
  1. To be of complete creation
  • It is obligatory that the Sacrifice is of complete creation, and therefore it does not qualify if the animal is one-eyed, or lame, or too old, or of broken inner part of the horn 34, or of missing ears or any other limb, or castrated, or thin/skinny.
  • As a precaution, it is recommended that the Sacrifice is not hornless or earless by birth. However, it is permissible if the ear was pierced or slit, without anything missing from it. Similarly, [it is permissible] if the [animal’s] exterior [part of the] horn is broken, or if the sheep does not have a fat-tail by birth.
  • The conditions specified for the Sacrifice are applicable if these are possible, otherwise if it is not possible [to obtain a perfect match] but the imperfect, then that should be sufficient.
  1. The slaughter should be on the day of Eid

It is obligatory that the slaughter [of the animal] takes place on the day of Eid, or during the daytime on the Days of Tashreeq, which are the 10th, 11th, and 12th of Dhil-Hejjah, and it is permissible to delay the slaughter beyond these days. However, if one delayed this due to an excuse or deliberately, he has until the end of Dhil-Hejjah to do so and that would be sufficient, even though this postponement results in a sin for the one who deliberately skip this rite.

  1. The slaughter should take place in Mina

It is obligatory for the slaughter to take place in Mina, and it is not permissible to do so elsewhere. It is permissible to carry out the slaughter in the new slaughterhouses, which are said to be outside the limits of Mina, if there were any confinement, restriction, or difficulty,etc.

  1. Observing the order as a precaution

In carrying out the slaughter of the Sacrifice it is obligatory to observe the order prescribed for it, as a precaution; that the slaughter should be done after the Ram’y and before the halq (the shaving or trimming of the hair). If one breached this order due to an oversight, ignorance, or forgetting it, or due to confinement or difficulty, then there is no objection to it.

  1. Not to take it outside the Haram

It is obligatory that one does not take any meat of the sacrifice outside the Haram. However, if there is no use or consumption for it, it is permitted to take it outside. It is also permitted [to take it outside] if the Haajj (pilgrim) bought the [sacrificed] Sacrifice – that he had previously given it to a destitute.

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The Rites of the Tamattu‘ Hajj

Following are the rites of Tamattu Hajj which are mentioned below:

  1. Ihram.
  2. Staying at Arafat.
  3. Staying in Mashar.
  4. Stoning of Jamarat al-Aqabah in Mina.
  5. Slaughter of the sacrifice in Mina.
  6. Shaving of the head or trimming its hair in Mina.
  7. Tawaf al-Ziyarah.
  8. Salaat al-Tawaf
  9. Saey
  10. Tawaf al-Nisa.
  11. Salat Tawaf al-Nisa
  12. Staying overnight in Mina.
  13. Stoning of the three Jamarat.

  1. Ihram of the Tamattu‘ Hajj
  • The first of the Hajj rites is the Ihram, which is obligatory for the Tamattu‘ Hajj, and in fact it is a element– a principal element, and the Hajj is invalidated if deliberately abandoned.
  • The process of the ihram is the same as that for the Umrah, as mentioned previously, with the exception of the intention and the place of [declaring and assuming] ihram. The intention or intention is to state, “I declare and assume the ihram for the TAMATTU’ HAJJ seeking nearness to Allah Almighty”. As for the place of ihram, one must do so in the holy city of Mecca.
  • The first time one can declare and assume the ihram is after completing the rites of Umrah, and the time of [declaring] ihram extends to the ninth day of Dhil-Hejjah, which is the day of woquf in Arafat, when it becomes obligatory upon the pilgrim to declare and assume ihram so that he can observe the woquf in time.
  • [The pilgrim] declares and assumes the state of ihram for the Tamattu‘ Hajj from the holy city of Mecca, and it is preferable to do so from Masjid al-Haram, preferably from Hijr Ismail or Maqam Ibrahim peace be upon them. He should wear the two garments of ihram, and then declares the intention of ihram for the Hajj, and then utters the talbiyah.
  • If one forgot to declare and assume the ihram from the holy city of Mecca, and he left Mecca on the eighth day for Mina or Arafat, and then remembered the oversight, it is obligatory for him to return to Mecca to declare and assume the ihram The same applies if he left Mecca without declaring and assuming ihram due to not being conversant with the ruling of the case. He should return to Mecca to declare ihram there, if possible.
  • He who is obliged to return to Mecca to declare and assume ihram, if he is excused from doing so, or in doing so he would not be able to come back to Arafat in time for the Designated (ikhtiari) woquf on the ninth day, which is from noon to sunset, he must declare and assume the ihram from the spot remembered or realised this, and this would be sufficient for him.
  • If one did not remember his failure to declare and assume ihram until after completing all of the rites, his Hajj is correct if this was due to oversight or ignorance.

If one deliberately failed to declare and assume ihram until he missed the time for the two woquf’s, his Hajj is invalidated, and so too if one had not assumed ihram, due to oversight or ignorance, and after being reminded he did not declare and assume ihram when it was possible for him to do so.

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Staying Overnight (Mabeet) in Mina

  • The twelfth rite of the Hajj is the mabeet [stay] in Mina, for it is obligatory on the eve of the 11th and 12th, and on certain occasions on the eve of the 13th too.
  • It is obligatory to observe the mabeet on the eve of the 13th if the sun of the 12th day set while he had not left Mina, or if he did not abstain from women36 or hunting. However, if one had abstained from women and hunting, or the sun did not set while he was in Mina, it is permitted for him to leave Mina, after midday / noontime on the 12th [of Dhil-Hejjah]. If one deliberately leaves Mina before midday of the 12th, he has sinned and must return before noontime if possible. In the case of forgetting or oversight, there is no liability.
  • If the sun set on the 12th day while he was in Mina or had not left its limits, even if he was getting ready to leave, or even if he was travelling in a car but still within the limits of Mina, it is obligatory for him to observe the mabeet on the eve of the 13th, as well as performing the Ramy – stoning – of the Jamarat on the 13th day, and may not leave Mina before midday.
  • It is a priority for the [pilgrim] who is performing his First Hajj to observe the mabeet on the eve of the 13th too. This is also applicable to anyone who has breached some of the prohibited acts of the ihram, or committed a major sin. In fact it is preferred for every pilgrim.
  • The necessary amount of mabeet is one half of the night, whether the first or the second half. Night is defined as from the Adhaan of Maghrib to Adhaan of Fajr. Therefore it is permitted for one to leave Mina after midnight if he had observed mabeet during the first half of night, although it is preferred to observe the mabeet throughout the night until Fajr.
  • It is obligatory to state the niyyah for the mabeet in Mina for the eves of 11th, 12th and 13th in the same way as in other duties and rites. niyyah should be stated after the time of ‘Esha if he had not done so at the time of Maghrib. He should state, “I observe the mabeet this night in Mina seeking nearness to Allah Almighty”. Abandoning [the declaration of] the niyyah constitutes a sin, but he is not liable to penalty, although, as a precaution, it is mostahab to give one.
  • If one left Mecca but did not reach Mina or fell asleep on the way [to Mina], or he who had forgotten, or were ignorant of the ruling, or due to an oversight, or was overcome by illness or sleep, and therefore did not manage to observe the mabeet in Mina, he is not liable to anything. The same is applicable if there was no space in Mina to stay for mabeet, or if there was an excuse preventing him from observing the mabeet in Mina, such as fear of an enemy, or disease and such like.
  • It is permissible to engage in acts of worship in Masgid al-Haram or the Mas‘a [the route between Safa and Marwah], as a substitute for observing the mabeet in Mina. He could go to these two sites, and engage in acts of worship such as prayers, recitation of the Qur’an, reading various Du‘a and supplications, seeking forgiveness performing tawaf and sa‘y. Doing so for one half of the night seems to satisfy the requirement [of mabeet], having the choice between the first half of the night, which is from the Maghrib Adhaan until midnight, and the latter half, which is from midnight to the Fajr prayers. In that case, the requirement of observing to stay in Mina is waved.

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The Rulings of the Mahsoor (The Sick)

  • The Mahsoor is the pilgrim who declares and assumes the ihram for either Hajj or Umrah, and then falls ill such that he is not able to perform the rites, in a similar way to the case of the Masdood. If during the declaration of the ihram he had made it conditional that Allah Almighty releases him [from his ihram] if he were to be confined, he would then be released from his ihram without the need to send his Had’y to the site [for slaughtering].
  • The pilgrim who had declared and assumed ihram for the Tamattu‘ or Ifraad Hajj, the ruling above applies to him. However, if the pilgrim declared and assumed ihram for the Qiraan Hajj, and had his Had’y accompanying him, he is released from his ihram as soon as he sends his Had’y away [for slaughter] and he does not need to wait for the Had’y to reach the [slaughtering] site.
  • If during the declaration of the ihram he had not made it conditional that Allah Almighty releases him [from his ihram] if he were to be confined, he would remain in his [state of] ihram, and as a precaution, he should send his Had’y for slaughtering, and when it reaches the [slaughtering] site, and the time of its slaughter had passed he could trim and release himself from ihram. It is permissible to slaughter the animal in the locality [of the ill pilgrim].
  • It is obligatory for the Mahsoor to perform the Hajj again if he had previously met all the criteria for the Hajj requirements but did not perform the Hajj on that year. If, however, in the future years he did not manage to perform the Hajj himself, [he remains liable to the Hajj] and must do so by proxy.
  • If the pilgrim became Mahsoor in the ihram of the Hajj, regardless of whether the Hajj was Tamattu‘, Ifraad, or Qiraan, the [slaughtering] site of the Had’y is in Mina. If the pilgrim became Mahsoor in the ihram of the Umrah, regardless of whether the Umrah is Tamattu‘ or Mufradah, the spot of the Had’y is in the holy city of Mecca. If the cause [i.e. illness] disappeared, the pilgrim should join his group to perform the rites. If he managed to observe the two sites of stay (Arafat and Mashar), or one of them.
  • If, due to his illness, he could not perform the rites of the day of Eid, and those after, he must perform the stoning of jamarats and slaughter by proxy, and then perform the shaving himself, [i.e. not by proxy]. If he could, he should perform the circumambulation and the saey himself or with the help of others, otherwise he should do them by proxy too. He should say the prayer of the circumambulation if he was present in the [Grand] Mosque, otherwise, as a precaution, he should perform the prayer himself and also do so by proxy in its place [by Maqam Ibrahim or behind it]. He should observe the mabeet in the Mina if he could, or engage in acts of worship in Mecca instead, and his Hajj is correct, otherwise he should give a penalty for not observing the mabeet, as a precaution.
  • If due to sickness he was prevented from performing all the rites of Mina and Mecca, it is obligatory for him to send his Had’y [for slaughter], and release himself from his ihram, and repeat his Hajj again if he still was capable next year, unless he was liable to Hajj previously [and had not performed it, in which case, he must perform the Hajj next year regardless of him being capable or not].

Performing Hajj Cheaply 2018 Hajj & Its Kinds

There are three types of Hajj:

  1. Qiraan – The pilgrim enters the state of ihram with the intention of performing both Umrah and Hajj.A single ihram is adopted for both. On reaching Mecca, the pilgrim first performs Umrah and thereafter he performs Hajj in the same ihram; hence he will remain in the same ihram till the end of Hajj.
  2. Tamattu – The pilgrim enters the state of ihram with the intention of performing Umrah only. On conclusion of Umrah, this ihram is removed for Umrah and another ihram is adopted before 8th Zul Hijjah with the purpose of performing Hajj.
  3. Ifrad – The pilgrim enters the state of ihram with the intention of performing Hajj only. He does not combine it with Umrah. After entering the ihram, the pilgrim will remain under the restrictions until the end of Hajj.

 HAJJ QIRAAN

If you are performing Hajj Qiran:

  1. You will enter the state of ihram with the intention of performing both – Umrah and Hajj on or before reaching Meeqat.
  1. On reaching Mecca, make necessary arrangements and go to Al Masjidul Haram and perform Umrah (i.e. tawaf and sa‘ee).

Note : Do not shave or trim after sa‘ee.

  1. After completing sa‘ee, perform a second tawaf. This second tawaf is tawafe qudoom which is Sunnah.

Note : If you are going to perform sae of Hajj after this tawaf, then this tawaf will be performed with idhtibaa in all seven rounds and ramal in the first three rounds only.

  1. Now perform sa‘ee once again. This is the sa‘ee for Hajj.

Note: Sae of Hajj can be performed after Tawaf e Ziyarat too, but for those performing Hajj Qiraan, it is more preferable and better to perform it after tawafe qudoom.

  1. Now you will remain in Mecca Mukarramah in the state of ihram. You will not adopt another ihram for Hajj.

HAJJ TAMATTU‘

If you are performing Hajj Tamattu‘:

  1. You will enter the state of ihram with the intention of performing Umrah only on or before reaching Meeqaat. Study and follow the section on ihram in my book ‘How to Perform Umrah’.
  2. On reaching Mecca, make necessary arrangements and go to Al Masjid al Haram and perform Umrah (i.e. tawaf, sa‘ee and halaq/qasr).

After halaq (shaving), all restrictions of ihram will end. You will remain in Mecca Mukarramah without ihram.

 HAJJ IFRAD

If you are performing Hajj Ifrad:

  1. You will enter the state of ihram with the intention of performing Hajj on or before reaching Meeqaat.

However, make sure you make intention to perform Hajj and not Umrah.

  1. On reaching Mecca, make necessary arrangements and go to Al Masjidul Haraam and perform tawafe qudoom which is Sunnah. Thereafter, offer two raka‘at behind Maqaame Ibraaheem.

Note: If you are going to perform sa‘ee of Hajj after Tawaf e qudoom, then perform the tawaf, with idhtibaa in all seven rounds and ramal in the first three rounds.

Note: Sae of Hajj is best after Tawaf e Ziyarat for those performing Hajj Ifraad.

  1. If you intend to perform sa‘ee now, then proceed to Safaa.
  2. Now you will remain in Meca Mukarramah in the state of ihram. You will not adopt another ihram for Hajj.

The Umrah

 

  • If a pilgrim desires to perform Umrah, he should get rid of his routine clothing and bathe as he would after sexual attachment. After ablution a pilgrim should perfume his head and beard as it does not harms the purpose of Ihram.
  • Before taking on Ihram it is compulsory to take Bath, even in case of menstruating women and for those having postnatal bleeding. After the compulsory bath, a pilgrim, other than those menstruating or experiencing post- natal bleeding, executes the obligatory prayer on time. Otherwise, he makes his intention by praying the two rakats which are made each time ablution is performed.
  • Talbiyah is mandatory after the performance of prayers. For men raising his voice is recommended and for woman, only whispering beside his companion is allowed.
  • Since the time of Ihram til the execution of Tawaf, a pilgrim should say the Talbiyah during Umrah. Similarly during Hajj, a pilgrim say talbiyah from the time he puts on his Ihram till he starts to stone Jamrah Al- Aqaba on the Eid day.
  • On entering the Masjid al Haram a pilgrim advances his right foot first. He move towards the Black Stone, and try to make contact with his right hand and kisses it. In case a pilgrim finds it difficult on account of crowded rush, he should face the Black Stone and point to it. Pushing and shoving will cause harm to the pilgrim himself and the others.
  • During tawaf a pilgrim must keep the Kabah on his left and walk steadily. When he reaches the Yamani corner he should touch, but not kiss it and do this act every time he crossed the Black Stone he should say: “Allah is the Greatest.”
  • While performing the remaining of his Tawaf a pilgrim may say or recite as desired and mention the Greatness of Allah. The elements of Hajj & Umrah, Tawaf, Sa’yi, and Stoning the Jamrah are developed for the purpose of mentioning Greatness of Allah. While performing Tawaf it is essential for a man to do two things:

Al-ldhteba (During whole tawaf)

Al-ldhteba represents adjusting the middle of your Reda (the Ihram garment)           under his right arm and the ends of it over his left shoulder. After performing the tawaf, he may resume his Reda’ to its real state as the Idhteba is only during done during the performance of Tawaf.

Al-Raml (During the first three circuits

Al-Raml represents pacing up the speed with small steps. A pilgrim may walk at an average pace during his last four circuits. When he completes seven circuits of Tawaf, he approaches Maqam Ibrahim and recites dua.

  • After the performance of Tawaf, a pilgrim executes two Rakats, as close as suitably possible, behind Maqam e Ibrahim. When he completes the two Rakas he should go back to the Black Stone and make contact with it.
  • After that a pilgrim went out to the Mesa and climb As-Safa until he is in a position to see the Kabah. Directing towards Kabah he raises his hands in the air, he praises Allah and makes any recites.
  • After climbing As-Safa, he advances towards Al- Marwah at a usual pace until he reaches the green marker. He should then run fast until the next green marker. He carry on toward Al- Marwah at a usual pace. When he reaches the Al Marwah mountain, he climbs it, directing his face towards Qibla, raises his hands and repeats what he said on As-Safaa. He come down from Al-Marwah heading towards As-Safaa, following the directions where walking is required, and run where running is designated.
  • This walking climbing continues on the eve of completing seven laps. The lap completes from As-Safa to Al-Marwah and returning is another lap. During his Saey he may recite what he wills of supplications, recitation of Qur’an, and mentioning Allah.

In the end of Saey a pilgrim cuts his hairs off from the head. A woman only trims her hair to the length equals to a finger tip.

Making an Intention (Niyyah) For Hajj & Umrah

INTENTION IN THE CASE OF A YOUNG CHILD

Young children are divided into two types:

 A Child who is Mumaiyiz (achieved puberty)

This is a child who can be taught to invoke the intention by himself. He may be taught by anyone to intend according to the intentions mentioned earlier.

 A Child who is not yet Mumaiyiz (Immaturity)

This is a child who is not yet able to comprehend what is told to him. In this case, his legal guardian should intend on his behalf, as follows:

“I intend on behalf of my child here, for ‘Umrah (or hajj)”.

 Important Points To Note:

  • These children, whether mature or immature, should have been enrobed with the ihram garb before invoking the intention.
  • The legal custodian who can invoke the intention on behalf of a immature child is the father and grandfather (if without the father), and those who have been legally authorized by his father. According to the Islamic scholars, it is not legitimate for the mother to invoke the intention on the child’s behalf, the father should is legally empower the mother to do so for the child.
  • The child should execute all the vital rites and obligatory acts for Hajj or Umrah.
  • The lawful guardian may assist the child by carrying him to circumambulate (tawaf) together. Here, the child should fulfill all the conditions of the tawaf, such as being in a state of ritual purity.
 In Following Conditions:

If the lawful guardian carries the child or pushes him in a wheelchair, and the tawaf intention is for both the guardian and his child, is the tawaf for both valid?

There is a difference of scholarly opinion on the validity of the concurrent tawaf of the guardian and his child. The two opinions are:

  • The tawaf is valid for the guardian only, and it is not valid for the child, according to the strong opinion within the Shafie school. In such a case, the guardian should tawaf for himself first, and then tawaf while carrying the child or pushing his wheelchair and invoking the intention on behalf of the child.
  • The tawaf is valid for both the guardian and the child, according to the weaker opinion. If the crowded situation becomes a problem, one can hold to this opinion.

The child should be refrained from all prohibitions while in the state of ihram, such as taking some fragnance, dressing up (for the son), cutting the hair or finger nails. Transgressions committed will be penalized with the fidyah as for adults, and the guardian will be held to account.

Invalidating The Intention Of Ihram

Hajj or Umrah cannot be invalidated after its intention has been invoked and before the hajj or Umrah has been completely fulfilled. For instance, one who has invoke the intention for Umrah, and who suddenly feels unmotivated to complete it because there are too many people doing the tawaf. He immediately wants to invalidate his Umrah and change his dressing.

The answer: He cannot do that, except by performing three acts, in the following order.

  1. Slaughter a sacrificial goat (dam).
  2. Shaving / Cutting, in conjunction with the sacrifice.
  3. Shaving or cutting the hair, with the intention of tahallul

After these, only then is he free to change his dressing.

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Enclave and Prohibited Intentionally

If a person is restricted to go towards Makkah after wearing Ihram because of political issues, laws passed by the Government or severe illness, then he must sacrifice a sheep there itself and come out of the state of Ihram. After the sacrifice, all those acts are permissible for him which were prohibited in the state of Ihram.

The same condition is applicable on those who are not allowed to exit their countries because of Government loans, personal loans, bank loans etc.

Enclave (Masdood) – A person desirous of performing Hajj or Umrah but is not permitted to make to his desired destination (Makkah) after wearing Ihram because of political issues or Government’s restrictions.

Prohibition (Mahsoor) – A person who is unable to exit his country for the purpose of Hajj or Umrah after wearing Ihram because of any type of severe illness.

  • Whoever has worn the Ihram of Hajj or Umrah, it is obligatory on him to complete his pilgrimage, or else he will remain in the state of Ihram (even though in a few situations, the state of Ihram ends without performing the rituals).
  • If a person wears the Ihram with the intention of Hajj or Umrah, but his enemies or the government does not permit him to exit the country, and there is no other route to reach Makkah or the expense of the other route is unbearable for him, so he must remain at the same place (or return back) and sacrifice a camel, cow or a sheep; and if he cannot sacrifice an animal, he should keep fast for ten days, without which one cannot get out
  • of the state of Ihram. After the sacrifice, all those acts forbidden in the state of Ihram are permissible for him (including seeking pleasure from woman). The same condition is applicable on a person who is not permitted to leave his country due to unpaid bank loans or other liabilities.
  • After wearing Ihram, if a pilgrim is asked for a sum by the government or enemy etc., then if it may be possible for him to pay the amount, he should pay it for the sake of continuation of his pilgrimage and in case it is not possible for him to pay, then conditions of being enclave will apply on him..
  • If a person wears Ihram with the intention of Hajj or Umrah and cannot reach Makkah or is sent back due to severe illness, then he must necessarily sent an animal for sacrifice to Makkah or its price instead, and sacrifice should be performed on behalf of him in Makkah and then he should perform Taqseer; if this is not possible, he must sacrifice an animal and perform Taqseer in his country itself, after which all the acts forbidden in the state of Ihram will be permissible for him excluding the act of seeking pleasure from woman; and later he should ask someone to perform Tawaf un Nisa and its prayer on behalf of him, and when Tawaf un Nisa is performed, then seeking pleasure from woman will also become legal for him.

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Wearing of the Ihram during Umrah

  • Ihram is an attire that has to be compulsorily worn by men and it constitutes of two seamless pieces, one is “Ezaar/Lungi” (that is worn around the waist), and the other one is a sheet that is wrapped around both the shoulders; both these garments are to be put on before the Intention (Niyat) and Talbiyah. If one has donned the Ihram attire after the Intention (Niyah) and Talbiah, then as a non-obligatory precaution, the Intention (Niyah) has to be made again and the Talbiyah has to be recited once more.
  • It is an obligatory precaution that the “Lungi” (piece of cloth worn around the waist), must be sufficient enough to cover the body from the navel till the knee.
  • There is neither a particular way mentioned about wearing the two-piece attire (Ihram), nor that one piece has to be worn before and the other piece after, but it’s a non-obligatory precaution that the “Lungi” must be worn in the common and popular manner. The “Sheet”, as per obligatory precaution, is to be worn in such a way that the two shoulders, both the arms, and a portion of one’s waist is also covered.
  • It is not sufficient that a one piece garment that is lengthy enough to cover the necessary portions, usually covered by “Lungi” and Sheet, is used. So evidently, two different pieces of cloth should be used in the form of “Lungi” and “Sheet”.
  • While wearing the Ihram attire, (it cannot be disregarded that) the intention of proximity towards Allah should be mentally made (it means that he should consider this act of wearing Ihram also a part of the Prayer).
  • The Ihram attire has a condition to it that the clothes should be such in which Namaz (Salat) is performable, i.e., neither of pure silk, and as per obligatory precaution, nor of those animals whose flesh is not edible, or it (clothes) should not be impure in such a way that is not acceptable for Namaz.
  • As per obligatory precaution, the “Lungi” should not be such that a portion of the body is visible, but this condition is not applicable for the “sheet”.
  • Women can wear their casual clothes as Ihram, but those conditions are to be considered which have been mentioned in the context of the “Conditions of Ihram”.
  • If the Ihram attire becomes impure during a certain act or any other time, then as per obligatory precaution, either it should be changed or should be purified instantly. But if the body turns impure, then the necessity of its immediate purification is not proved.
  • It is a voluntary precaution that both the pieces of the Ihram attire should be stitched and should not be of animal skin, leather or the likes of these.
  • It is not compulsory to wear the Ihram all the time but it can be taken off with or without any excuse.
  • It is a precaution that the “Lungi” should not have a knot and it should not be tied to the neck and nor a portion of it should be tied to the other. This same precaution is applicable for the sheet also, although, the use of a needle or a safety pin would do no harm.
  • It is not necessary for one to be pure of Hadas-e-Akbar and Hadas-e-Asghar while wearing Ihram. It can also be worn in the state of Jenabat or menstruation. Although, the women having periods or menstrual cycles also have Ghusl-e-Ahram as a voluntary act for them.

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